The world ocean is one of the main directions of development of the world civilization.
The essence of the national policy of the leading world powers and most states of the world community in the foreseeable future will be independent activity and cooperation in the development of the World Ocean, as well as inevitable competition on this path.
Ocean research and development activities intensified in the late 1940s and early 1950s of the 20th century. At that time, research was conducted mainly by non-specialized vessels. Passenger, transport and other vessels were used for this purpose after minor re-equipment.
As time passed, more precise measurements were required, their nomenclature and complexity increased, and the requirements for processing the collected information during the experiment appeared. This led to complication of scientific equipment and necessity of creation of specially designed research ships (hereinafter referred to as research ships).
The total number of currently operated NIS ships has exceeded 1 thousand ships. More than 70 states own these ships. The most numerous research fleets have the USA, Japan, Great Britain, France, Canada, Germany and China.
In the USSR, the most intensive replenishment of the research fleet took place in 1970-1980s, and by the beginning of 1990s there were about 400 ships, which made up 30% of the total number of the world NIS fleet. At disintegration of the USSR with formation of the independent states more than 300 NIS has departed to Russia. During the time elapsed since then the research fleet in the country practically was not replenished and was not modernized. Therefore, the problem of ship design is very acute.
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